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By the end of this unit you should have covered the following learning objectives:


 Describe the patterns of rural settlements – dispersed, linear, nucleated.

• Explain how physical factors (relief, soil, water supply) and other factors such as accessibility, agricultural land-use, influence the sites and patterns of rural settlements.

• Describe and explain the factors which may influence the size, growth and functions of rural and urban settlements.

• Describe and suggest reasons for the hierarchy of settlements and services.
• Describe and explain the land-use zones of towns and cities to include the Central Business District (CBD), residential areas, industrial areas, the provision of open spaces and transport routes. Differences in the patterns of urban structures in cities of LEDCs and MEDCs should be identified.
• Describe problems associated with the growth of urban areas such as congestion in the CBD, housing shortages, traffic congestion, squatter settlements. Suggested solutions to overcome these problems should be illustrated by reference to selected examples.
• Describe the effects of urbanisation on the environment – pollution (air, water, visual and noise), the results of urban sprawl on surrounding areas, the growth of out-of-town urban activities – shopping areas, sports facilities, etc.

HERE IS THE LEARNING OBJECTIVE SHEET FOR THIS UNIT:


1. SETTLEMENT CHARACTERISTICS


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dispersed.jpg linear.jpg nucleated.jpg



2. LAND USE MODELS


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3. URBANIZATION



4. SQUATTER SETTLEMENTS

5. URBAN CONGESTION